“Psychology has long past, yet its real history is short.” – Hermann Ebbinghaus
I want to write about psychology. You will be familiar with psychology in general by giving brief and comprehensible answers to questions such as “What is definition and history of psychology?”, “What are the aims of psychology?”, “What are the sub-branches of psychology?”, and “Where psychology is heading?”.
The abbreviation APA stands for “American Psychological Association.” APA; It is a scientific and professional association representing psychology studies in the United States. It is the largest institution in the field of psychology with more than 155,000 members. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior according to the American Psychological Association. The mind’s work deals with how it works and how it affects behavior. This definition was made recently, but the science of psychology has been the focus of attention for many scientists from ancient Greek philosophers to the present day.
Thinkers like Plato and Aristotle shed light on our day by asking very critical questions. One of these questions is; “Do people’s cognitive abilities and knowledge come from birth or acquired later?” Plato and Aristotle gave different answers to this question. According to Plato, children can learn their mother tongue without any special education, regardless of culture. So, he argues that some information is innate. On the other hand, Aristotle, on the other hand, develops in the framework of the child’s experiences. Today, it is unlikely that knowledge or talents are entirely innate or formed entirely by experience. Descartes, the French philosopher who lived in the 17th century, said that brain and mind are different from each other. The brain is made up of concrete matter, and the mind is a spiritual being. The idea is that the brain and the mind are separate each other but interacting is called dualism.
After Descartes, we continued to think about the brain and mind. The establishment of psychology as a science was made possible by the work of Wilhelm Wundt. In 1879, Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig and is considered the founder of scientific psychology. According to Wundt, psychology should focus on the concept of “consciousness.” Wundt explored consciousness in Germany, while Sigmund Freud explored the subconscious in Austria. Using methods such as hypnosis, Freud interviewed many of his patients and observed that they did not have physical discomfort even though they showed symptoms of the disease. And as the reason; The problems they threw out of their consciousness suggested that they caused diseases. Freud collected his work and ideas under the name of psychoanalysis (I will share his life and works in history in more detail in the coming time).
Reason is very complex and the conditions associated with it can be difficult to treat. Therefore, there are different types of psychology that serve different purposes. Common ones are; clinical psychology, conceptual psychology, developmental psychology, evolutionary psychology, neuropsychology, occupational psychology and social psychology. To briefly explain these subt branches; Clinical psychology can help us to understand, alleviate psychological distress and dysfunction, and to promote individual welfare and personal development. Cognitive psychology examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, learning and language.
Development Process Of Psychology
Developmental psychology looks at innate mental structures versus experience and learning, or how a person’s characteristics interact with environmental factors and how it affects development. Forensic psychology involves evaluating psychological factors that may affect a case or behavior and present findings in court. Evolutionary psychology looks at how human behavior, such as language, is influenced by psychological arrangements during evolution.
Neuropsychology examines the structure and function of the brain according to its behavior and psychological processes. A neuropsychological assessment is used to determine whether a person is likely to experience behavioral problems after suspected or diagnosed brain injury, such as stroke. Professional or organizational psychologists provide advice and advice on people’s performance at work and in training. Social psychology uses scientific methods to understand how social influences affect human behavior. Psychology has such sub-branches and its field of study is very wide.
Finally, the question is, what does psychology do? We learned that psychology is a science that examines the essence, the different states of the human soul, and tries to find the rules of phenomena such as sensation, enthusiasm and thinking. As a human science, psychology helps many disciplines. Because psychology is related to human behaviors, it is an inseparable science from medicine and this feature makes it possible to benefit from psychology in the field of health. Psychology can be used together with other social sciences to solve social problems. For example, this science can be used to solve the problem of violence against women in the country. This also applies to solving serious problems in schools in the United States.
Psychology is also used in the field of education. Psychology can answer the questions of how a person learns, how to learn more effectively. Psychology is perhaps the most intertwined of the so-called pedagogy. How should children be treated, how should children be raised? Psychology seeks answers to these questions. Psychology is also very important and necessary for the business world. Who should be hired, what can be done to increase organizational loyalty, job satisfaction, how can people be more comfortable and productive in environments? This science can be used to answer these questions.
The uses of psychology written here are examples. These are some of the many uses of psychology with different sub-branches. What is psychology and what does psychology do is not the exact answer.
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